(*) = in-depth further readings


John Pollock and Joseph Cruz, Contemporary Theories of Knowledge, Second Edition
Steup, Turri, and Sosa, Contemporary Debates in Epistemology, Second Edition
(*) John Hawthorne, Knowledge and Lotteries
(*) Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity

Section One: Knowledge and the Skeptical Problem -- and Dogmatist and Contextualist Responses

Rene Descartes, Meditation One of Meditations on First Philosophy
G.E. Moore, "Proof of an External World" (short selection)
David Lewis, "Elusive Knowledge" (selection)

Section Two: Justification and the Skeptical Problem -- and Dogmatist, A Priorist, and Coherentist Responses

Jim Pryor, "There is Immediate Justification" (and replies to Comesana)
Juan Comesana, "There is no Immediate Justification" (and replies to Pryor)
Stewart Cohen, "Basic Knowledge and the Problem of Easy Knowledge" (short selection)
(*) Roger White, "Problems for Dogmatism"
(*) Stewart Cohen, "Bootstrapping, Defeasible Reasoning, and A Priori Justification"
(*) Jim Pryor, "When Warrant Transmits", "Deliberating, Concluding, and Entailing", and "The Merits of Incoherence"

Section Three: Justification and the New Evil Demon Problem: Pragmatic vs. Epistemic Reasons; Internalism vs. Externalism

Blaise Pascal, "The Wager"
Gilbert Harman, "Pragmatism and Reasons for Belief" (short selection)
Alvin Goldman, "What is Justified Belief?" (short selection)
Stewart Cohen, "Justification and Truth"
Alvin Goldman, Epistemology and Cognition (short selection)
Alvin Goldman, "Strong and Weak Justification" (short selection)
Earl Conee and Richard Feldman, "The Generality Problem for Process Reliabilism"
Hilary Kornblith, "Justified Belief and Epistemically Responsible Action"
(*) Juan Comesana, "Evidentialist Reliabilism" (selection)
Marian David, "Truth as the Primary Epistemic Goal"

Section Four: Justification, Coherence, Probability Theory

John Pollock and Joseph Cruz, Contemporary Theories of Knowledge (selection)
Handout on the probability calculus, probabilism and synchronic coherence, and bayesianism and diachronic coherence
(*) Alan Hajek, "Arguments for--or against--Probabilism?"
Michael Resnik, Choices (selection)
W.V.O. Quine and J.S. Ullian, The Web of Belief (selection)
John Pollock, "Problems for Bayesian Epistemology"
Catherine Elgin, "Non-foundationalist Epistemology: Holism, Coherence, and Tenability"

Section Five: Disagreement, Evidence, the Priority of Knowledge

Tom Kelly, "Peer Disagreement and Higher-Order Evidence"
(*) Adam Elga, "Reflection and Disagreement"
Tom Kelly, "Evidence can be Permissive"
Roger White, "Evidence cannot be Permissive"
Timothy Williamson, "Knowledge First"

Section Six: Knowledge and the Gettier Problem

Edmund Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?"
Gilbert Harman, Thought (short selection)
Alvin Goldman, "Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge" (short selection)
(*) Tamar Gendler and John Hawthorne, "The Real Guide to Fake Barns"

Section Seven: Knowledge, Shifting Standards, Closure, and Assertion

Stewart Cohen, "How to be a Fallibilist" (short selection)
Timothy Williamson "Knowledge and Assertion"
John Hawthorne, Knowledge and Lotteries (short selection)
Timothy Williamson, Knowledge and its Limits (short selection)
Fred Dretske, "The Case Against Closure"
John Hawthorne, "The Case for Closure"
Maria Lasonen-Aarnio, "Single Premise Deduction and Risk"
(*) Assaf Sharon and Levi Spectre, "Epistemic Closure under Deductive Inference: What is it and Can We Afford it?"
(*) John Hawthorne and Maria Lasonen-Aarnio, "Knowledge and Objective Chance"
(*) Timothy Williamson, "Reply to Hawthorne and Lasonen-Aarnio"
Jennifer Lackey, Learning from Words (selection)
John Hawthorne, Daniel Rothschild, and Levi Spectre, "Belief is Weak"

Section Eight: A Priority, Necessity, Analyticity

Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity (selection)
John Hawthorne, "Deeply Contingent A Priori Knowledge"
(*) Tyler Burge, "Content Preservation"
Saul Kripke, "A Puzzle about Belief"

Section Nine: From A Priori Epistemology to Cognitive Science

John Pollock and Joseph Cruz, Contemporary Theories of Knowledge (selection)
John Pollock and Iris Oved, "Vision, Knowledge, and the Mystery Link"
Stephen Stich, The Fragmentation of Reason (selection)

Additional Readings

Michael Resnik, Choices
James Ladyman, Understanding Philosophy of Science
Peter Unger, Philosophical Relativity
(*) Saul Kripke, Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language