Business Ethics

Beauchamp et al eds, Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics
Crane et al eds, Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility
Archie Carroll, Business Ethics: Brief Readings on Vital Topics
Visser et al, A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility

Solomon et al Anthology
Archie Carroll and Ann Buchholtz, Business & Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management


Business Ethics: Perspectives from Economics, Philosophy, and Real-World Practice (?)

Corporate Social Responsibility and the Ethics of Business

Do different rules apply in business than in ordinary life? For example, is ruthlessness and lying permissible in business in a way that it is not in ordinary life? Does a business have a general obligation to society, or is its only goal to maximize its profits? What if a business intentionally breaks laws and accepts the relevant fines, knowing that such a course of action will maximize profits? Is it OK for a firm to break laws intentionally when they are foolish and counterproductive?

Albert Carr, "Is Business Bluffing Ethical?", Harvard Business Review, 1968
Ray Kroc, "If your competitor is drowning, then shove a fire hose down his throat" etc
Larry Ellison and Genghis Khan
Steve Jobs, pirates, allegedly stealing other people's ideas etc
Milton Friedman, "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits", New York Times, 1970
Robert Frank, "Can Socially Responsible Firms Survive in a Competitive Environment?, in Messick et al eds. Codes of Conduct: Behavioral Research into Business Ethics, 1996
Peter Singer, "Putting Ethics Before Profits", The Guardian, 2009
John Mackey et al, "The CEO as Animal Activist: John Mackey and Whole Foods", in In Defense of Animals, Singer ed. 2005
Kenneth Arrow, "Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency"
Porter articles
Lynn Stout, selections from The Shareholder Value Myth, Berrett-Koehler, 2012
Reinhardt, Stavins, Vietor, "Corporate Social Responsibility through an Economic Lens", National Bureau of Economics Working Papers, 2008
Paul Portney, "The (Not So) New Corporate Social Responsibility: An Empirical Perspective", Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 2008
John Mackey, selections from Conscious Capitalism (see also HBR piece)
Timothy Clark and Kristen Grantham, "What CSR is Not: Corporate Social Irresponsibility", in Tench et al eds Corporate Social Irresponsibility: A Challenging Concept
Greenwashing, CSR just covers up CSI
Budolfson, "The Imperative of Ethical Innovation, and How a Firm's Unilateral Rejection of Unethical Industry Practices can Avoid Futility and Unacceptable Cost to Shareholders"
WANTED: a good paper on 'stakeholder theory' etc.
WANTED:  papers/case studies on laying off employees, unnecessary strategic bankruptcy and restructuring merely to increase profits (vs to maintain viability)
Peter French..."Corporate Moral Agency"?
Margaret Gilbert
Case study: Google comes out in favor of gay rights
Case study: "Blankfein's Gay-Rights Stance Shows Wall Street's Dilemma", Bloomberg, 2012
Case study: Criticism of Warren Buffett qua CEO for his public advocacy of 'The Buffett Rule'
Case: google don't be evil, google glasses, prism
Case: apple and aluminum enclosures: innovation that improves product and profitability while improving along the social rep dimension
Case: apple and labor, foxconn, NYtimes articles, relocating jobs to USA, etc

Operations and Management Ethics

Leavitt and Whisler, "Management in the 1980s", Harvard Business Review, 1958
Peter Maass, selections from Crude World           
Series of articles on Apple and Foxconn, New York Times, 2011
Tom Hill, "Symbolic Protest and Calculated Silence"
Greg Smith, "Why I am Leaving Goldman Sachs"
Cheshire Calhoun, "Standing for Something"
Christopher Kutz, selections from Complicity: Ethics and Law for a Collective Age
Anthony Appiah, "Racism and Moral Pollution", The Philosophical Forum, 1987
Mark Budolfson, "The Ethics of Supply Chain Management and Purchasing Decisions"
Paper on Careerism and Personal Decision-Making 
Matt Zwolinski, "The Ethics of Price Gouging", Business Ethics Quarterly (2008)
F.A. Hayek, “The Use of Knowledge in Society”
Malcolm Gladwell, "Disclosure Statement: Conflicts of interest, Bias vs. Opinion"
Richard Feynman, "Cargo Cult Science", in Surely You're Joking Mr. Feynman
Case Study: "Blankfein: Goldman Has No Duty To Disclose Own Position", Bloomberg, 2010
Case Study: "Goldman Sachs and the $580 Million Black Hole", New York Times, 2012
WANTED: something good on NGO operations ethics
Buffett against diversification, pro-shareholder rights etc.
Denis Arnold, "Roger Boisjoly and the Challenger Disaster: Disloyal Employee or Courageous Whistleblower?", Ethical Theory and Business, 8th ed. Beauchamp et al eds, 2008
Richard Feynman, "Comments on the Challenger Disaster"
WANTED: discussion of topics such as: building a skyscraper when it is virtually certain that someone will die in the construction, the right to information about risks in the workplace, etc.    
Tom Hill, selection from "Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments"
Cost Benefit Analysis   ford pinto automakers, dangerous products, cost/benefit calculations based on a valuation of innocent lives, other critiques of CBA, etc.
Arrow et al       Cost Benefit Analysis Science       
Sandel    Critique    NY Times    see environ econ book   
Replies    NY Times(?)    see environ econ book   
Schmidtz    Full Cost Accounting    in Schmidtz environmental ethics   
Liar's poker, etc  

Finance Ethics

Hostile Takeovers, Nabisco, Corporate Raiders, Icahn
Carol Loomis, "Lies, Damned Lies, and Managed Earnings", Money (1999)
Accounting tricks that are tricky but not clearly unethical; Enron The Smartest Guys in the Room
Taking advantage of unintended tax loopholes
Taking advantage of govt. subsidies (suppose everyone else in your industry is doing it, and you'll go out of business if you don't; financial crisis)
Roger Lowenstein, selections from When Genius Failed
Jennifer Moore, "What Is Really Unethical About Insider Trading?"

Marketing Ethics

Theodore Levitt    The Morality of Advertising    Harvard Business Review, 1970                      
Cigarettes, GMOs,         Disclosure of information, free choice, etc   
Manipulation        Kahneman and Tversky and Nudge-ish: even if disclosure and free choice, still problems of manipulation       
Predatory Pricing, Predatory Lending         
Wasteful packaging 

Descriptive Ethics: Using Economic Incentives and Insights from Empirical Psychology to Promote Ethical Behavior and Avoid Ethical Lapses

J. Scott Armstrong, "Social Irresponsibility in Management", Journal of Business Research, 1977
Many, many, many

Justice Inside and Outside of the Workplace
Peter Singer, "Famine, Affluence, and Morality"
response to singer
David Lewis, "Illusory Innocence?"
Peter Singer, selection on luck from The Life You Can Save      
Warren Buffett, "The Ovarian Lottery"
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, selections from Fooled by Randomness
Buffett, executive compensation
Judith Jarvis Thomson, "Preferential Hiring", Philosophy and Pubic Affairs (1973)
california university court case example
Robert Fullinwider, "Affirmative Action", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009)
WANTED: moving first hand reports, case studies, etc
Iris Marion Young, selection from Justice and the Politics of Difference incl "Affirmative Action and the Myth of Merit" (1990)
Andrew Altman, "Discrimination", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011)
Linda Babcock, et. al., "Nice Girls Don't Ask", Harvard Business Review, 2003   
Anne-Marie Slaughter and Responses the Atlantic
Sheryl Sandberg, selections from Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead
Patricia Smith, "Feminist Philosophy of Law", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009)

labor unions, strikebreaking; due process for workers
sexual harassment  
Environmental justice       
Larry Summers
Case study: Ronald Reagan firing the air traffic controllers           
Case study based on the film American Dream           

Sustainability, Externalities, and Environmental Responsibility

Garrett Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 1968
Ostrom video
Pigou    The Economics of Welfare (small selection)    public domain (?), 1920    
Market Failure, Government failure, public choice theory
Externalities and Social Cost    Coase    The Problem of Social Cost    Journal of Legal Studies, 1960  
Ostrom, drama of the commons
Elinor Ostrom, "A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-Ecological Systems", Science, 2009
Mark Sagoff, "Do We Consume Too Much?", The Atlantic, 1997
Robert Solow    Sustainability: An Economist's Perspective    National Geographic Research and Exploration, 1992       
Jon Christensen, "Are We Consuming Too Much?", Conservation Magazine, 2005
Kenneth Arrow, et al., "Are We Consuming Too Much?", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2004
more good left wing articles           
Budolfson    Climate change and Business ethics       compare Arnold and Bustos in Ethical Theory and Business Beauchamp eds  

The Morality of Property and Capitalism

Adam Smith on the invisible hand
Milton Friedman, selections from Capitalism and Freedom   
obligatory Rawls
Robert Frank, "Positional Externalities and How Rising Inequality Hurts the Middle Class", from Falling Behind  
Karl Marx, good stuff on alienation etc. 
Epstein, Richard. 1984, “In Defense of the Contract at Will,” University of Chicago Law Review 51: 947-982         
Locke    Of Property           
Simmons    Locke on Charity         
Schmidtz, "The Institution of Property"
WANTED: good readings on intellectual property etc.